Saturday, February 8, 2020

Yellow Fever Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Yellow Fever - Essay Example It is similar to the â€Å"West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, and Japanese encephalitis virus† (CDC 2010, section ‘Yellow fever virus transmission’). The virus is spread by mosquitoes in tropical regions of South America and Africa (CDC 2010, PHAC 2010, PubMed Health 2009, WHO 1993, WHO 2011). It replicates inside the mosquito (WHO 1993) and after being bitten by an infected mosquito, symptoms usually occur within three to six days (CDC 2010, PubMed Health 2009, WHO 2011). There is no treatment of yellow fever, but the focus is on symptom management and vaccination (WHO 2011). Many difference species of the Haemogogus and Aedes mosquitoes are vectors or hosts that act as a vessel to spread the flavivirus that causes yellow fever (WHO 2011). It can be transferred between monkeys, between people, and from monkeys to humans (WHO 2011). Mosquitoes can be classified as domestic, wild, or semi-domestic and there are three main transmission cycles (CDC 2010, PHAC 2010, WHO 2011). In the first cycle known as the sylvatic yellow fever (or jungle), monkeys are infected by mosquitoes who then pass on the virus to mosquitoes that bite them.

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Ending Poverty in the Third World Essay Example for Free

Ending Poverty in the Third World Essay Poverty continues to be a large part of the third world countries, affecting many people’s wellbeing and country stability in the new millennium, despite many strategies put in place to alleviate the poor status. Due to the continued prominent place of poverty in the third world countries, significant strategies are coming up comprising of political, social, spiritual, environmental, and managerial coping strategies. The strategies have realized various levels of success although it highly depends on the place of implementation and the taskforce mandated to implement the development strategies. The failure or minimal success of some of the strategies geared towards ending poverty in the third world, has encouraged the developed and developing countries, and developmental related agencies to focus on coming up with new theories with the likelihood of more success. Nevertheless, poverty in the third world continues to be a major challenge in the world with many strategies, some successful and others marked with dismal failure coming up to alleviate third world poverty. Description of Poverty in the Third World Poverty implies a lack of adequate food and shelter, lack of better housing, sanitation, access of safe drinking water attributed to lack of income to facilitate acquisition of basic necessities, a sense of powerlessness, and vulnerability to adverse shocks (Parsed et al, 2005, p. 290). The concept of poverty encompasses a large spectrum of attributes such as levels of income and consumption, health, education, security, and housing. Nevertheless, poverty is largely an attribute of low income that prevents individuals and families from acquiring and enjoying basic life necessities such as nutritious food, clothing, shelter, and clean water. Regions highly affected by the incidence of poverty are Africa and Asia, also referred as the third world, the developing nations, or less developed countries, although Africa suffers a more rampant extent of poverty compared to Asia (Parsed et al, 2005, p. 290). Among these countries, the poor live mostly on less than a dollar a day, although some live on $2 a day, although the incidence and gap may not be significant either in the African or Asian developing countries. In the past decade, the development of the concept of globalization gave promise to the reduction of poverty in the third world because of the removal of control on free movement of goods and services; however, the initial hope is yet to be realized. Encouraging the possibility of poverty eradication within the emergence of globalization has been the United Nations and the development of goals towards alleviation of poverty, and the entry of the international community in the process of poverty eradication in the third world. Poverty and the Millennium Development Goals At the turn of the millennium in 2000, the United States member states agreed on eight international development goals to be achieved by 2015 that the countries adopted in 2001 in order to assist impoverished nations and create a sustainable global community. The first goal of the eight was to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, with the target being to half the number of people living on less than a dollar per day and reduce by half the number of people suffering from hunger. From the creation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), and various public, private, and federal agencies worked towards establishing developmental strategies that would facilitate the realization of the goals (Eggen and Bezemer, 2007, p. 1). The strategies have been constructed mainly along the international community through the UNDP, NGOs funded by international groups, the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) towards poverty reduction. Agreeably, poverty reduction especially in the third world has been an ongoing process in many countries. However, its recognition by the UN made it a priority within the international community with the MDGs becoming a coherent expression of global development priorities and an instrument to shape development policies (Eggen and Bezemer, 2007, p. 2). The introduction of the MDGs meant that the world had a standard by which to measure the success of policy interventions in poverty reduction within a certain period. In the discussion of the strategies set towards ending poverty in the third world, the policy interventions attributed to the MDGs, and the international community forms a critical part of the exploration. Therefore, throughout the paper, reference to the MDGs, the international community, and globalization are inevitable. Strategies towards Ending Poverty in the Third World When considering the interventions being developed towards ending poverty in the third world, one should consider the causes of poverty and their role in determining the responses towards poverty by all key players including inhabitants of third world countries, potential donors, and those from developed countries or economies. Among some of the determined causes of poverty in the third world first is the high and underdeveloped population in the third world attributed to lack of ability among the people, unwillingness to change traditional ways and customs, lack of proper resource management, lack of attempt at self-improvement, laziness, and lack of knowledge (Panadero and Vazquez, 2008, p. 574). The second cause is poor governance in third world countries attributed to corruption and inefficiency among the governments, while the third cause is exploitation of the third world countries by other countries especially developed countries and by the world economy and banking systems, and lack of an open market system. The fourth cause of poverty in the third world according to Panadero and Vasquez (2008) is war whereby the governments spend too much on arms and more is spent in restoring the country after a war or keep the country afloat in the course of the war. Lastly, third world poverty is attributed to natural causes that include diseases, pests and insects that destroy crops, natural disasters because of poor climatic conditions and lack of environmental friendly knowledge. Alleviation and eradication of poverty in the third world will take the effort of the inhabitants of these countries, those from the developed economies and the organizations key to development such as UNDP, World Bank and the IMF. The effort should focus on strategies that will facilitate reduction and eventual eradication of poverty, and ensuring people from the third world gain the knowledge and provisions needed to prevent them from going back to their current status. Agreeably, the eradication of poverty in the third world requires a multidimensional focus that does not only concentrate on reducing income poverty, which has been the focus of many interventions, but also include interventions geared towards reduction of human deprivation in all dimensions (Chopra, 2005, p. 52). To achieve a global reduction of poverty as per the MDGs by 2015, the third world countries comprising the world’s poorest countries need to pursue wide ranges of reforms with developed nations responding to the effort through improved trade terms and increased aid. According to Chopra (2005), action is critical in ensuring global financial stability and ensuring that poor countries are at par with developed nations in the adoption of technology and in scientific and medical research (p. 52). Further, the wealthy nations must open their markets to the products of the poor countries, with aid and debt relief increased to help the poor countries help themselves without the interference of the wealthy nations, which has marked most of the intervention programs. Nevertheless, the poor nations need to give voice to their need and influence decision-making in international forums, noting that in most forums the powerful developed countries make much of the decisions related to the development of the poor nations. Therefore, for the world to end third world poverty and ensure that the global platform allows equal opportunities and competition to all, the international community needs to review existing intervention programs. Among interventions that can aid the process of ending third world poverty that have been part of the implemented strategies, include one promoting equal opportunity through the expansion of economic opportunities for poor people through the stimulation of overall growth (Chopra, 2005, p. 51). Additional strategies towards offering equal opportunity is building up the poor countries assets and increasing the asset returns through market and non-market action. As stated in the discussion of causes of poverty, one of the mentions causes is an underdeveloped population; therefore, offering opportunities for economic expansion will help these populations begin thriving thus facilitate a reduction of poverty. Furthermore, another attributed cause of poverty is a closed market that does not allow the poor nations to promote their products in the developed nations; however, creation of opportunities through the opening of markets will enable them access the international market. Additionally, the promotion of assets especially within the international community is another strategy of providing equal opportunities to the poor nations. Second intervention is facilitating empowerment through adoption of accountability in state institutions and response to the needs of the poor people, as well as strengthening the participation of poor people in political processes and local decision-making (Chopra, 2005, p. 52). Further, empowerment requires people be encouraged to participate in political processes, local decision making, and eradicating social barriers that contribute to gender, ethnic, racial, religious, and social distinction. Dealing with unaccountability in state institutions including governments ensures successful address of some of the cause of poverty, which is corrupt government. Further, strengthening people’s participation in decision-making will provide the link between the people, the leadership, and the resources resulting in better resource usage that has been lacking in many third world countries. The third factor in addressing poverty in the third world is enlargement of security through reduction of people’s vulnerability to ill health, economic shocks, policy induced dislocations, natural disasters, and violence (Chopra, 2005, p. 52). Notably, health is a significant factor in development because when people are healthy they are more likely to engage in economically productive activities compared to when they are ill or undergoing natural circumstances that reduce their efficiency. Security should also include protection from violence, and helping the people deal with adverse shocks when they occur. Maintenance of security is important to offer people an opportunity to work towards developmentally beneficial activities without fear of violence, disease, or natural disasters, and incase such events occur people should know their country has the capacity to address them and restore order. The implementation of some of these factors as discussed in the subsequent section has been ongoing in many parts of the third world realizing a steady decline in poverty. However, the number of the poor continues to be significant denoting a failure in the effective of the strategies, and requiring developmental agencies and developing nations to either adopt different strategies or approach the existing strategies from another side. Nevertheless, one cannot claim that the international community has not been trying to meet the MDGs especially in the third world and some poor parts of the developed nations.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

The Impact of Friends :: personal reflections

Every individual holds the key to their own future. We are told to follow our hearts and all your dreams for success will come true. We believe, you can make your future whatever you want it to be, no matter what you do. The truth is that success takes an enormous amount of determination and dedication. There are key things we need to look out for in order to be able to be successful. From your friends at school to how your carry yourself, it all makes a reputation for yourself. The successful people are the ones that understand how to balance it. This is why successful people are looked up to, and it all started out with the people they associated themselves with everyday from elementary school to now and even in the future. The question is, can friends affect your success? Your friends are constantly present in your life, more than your family. Most people, spend most of their time surrounded by friends instead of family this, is not always a bad thing but, has become normal. This is very true, especially for teenagers, who spent five days a week, 7 hours or more per day at school. Not including all the extra activities like sports, clubs and church that teenagers like myself are involved in. I believe people usually end up acting like the people they hang around with. â€Å"Friends play a big role in determining who you are and how you dress and talk and act†. (Compton 1 of 2 Peer pressure) My grandfather always used to say, â€Å"Show me your friends, and I’ll tell you who you are†. Drs. Davis, Jenkins and, Hunt also say this in their book, The Pact, â€Å"Friends play a big role in determining who you are and how you dress and talk and act†. (Compton 1 of 2 Peer pressure) . Although, it’s helpful to â⠂¬Å"Friends play a big role in determining who you are and how you dress and talk and act†. (Compton 1 of 2 Peer pressure) . When you are constantly surrounded by people with the same goals as you, and are going through the same problems it feels normal to involve yourself in what they are doing, because you feel like you are in the same â€Å"boat†. This can impact your success positively or negatively.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Health and Hygiene Essay

The word technology refers to the making, modification, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems, and methods of organization, in order to solve a problem, improve a preexisting solution to a problem, achieve a goal, handle an applied input/output relation or perform a specific function. It can also refer to the collection of such tools, including machinery, modifications, arrangements and procedures. Technologies significantly affect human as well as other animal species’ ability to control and adapt to their natural environments. The term can either be applied generally or to specific areas: examples include construction technology, medical technology, and information technology. The prehistorical discovery of the ability to control fire increased the available sources of food and the invention of the wheel helped humans in travelling in and controlling their environment. Recent technological developments, including the printing press, the telephone, and the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact freely on a global scale. In many societies, technology has helped develop more advanced economies (including today’s global economy) and has allowed the rise of a leisure class. Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products, known as pollution, and deplete natural resources, to the detriment of the Planet Earth and its environment. The distinction between science, engineering and technology is not always clear. Science is the reasoned investigation or study of phenomena, aimed at discovering enduring principles among elements of the phenomenal world by employing formal techniques such as the scientific method. Technologies are not usually exclusively products of science, because they have to satisfy requirements such as utility, usability and safety. The 20th century brought a host of innovations. In physics, the discovery of nuclear fission has led to both nuclear weapons and nuclear power. Through our modern day miracles of science we are able to appreciate that which is truly an incredible era of advanced erudition and self-sufficiency. Because of the advantages of modern day technology, we are allowed the unique benefit of looking back on what was and comparing it with what is and what could be. Technology is no longer seen as a barrier, but as a breakthrough. Bringing fresh insight and offering better jobs to those who are willing to take a step towards the future. .

Sunday, January 5, 2020

America s War On Drugs - 2885 Words

Running head: AMERICA’S WAR ON DRUGS 1 America’s War on Drugs: A Battle against Drugs or a display of Racial Intolerance? Sharon Curry-Robinson, Duval County Court Bailiff Florida Gulf Coast University America’s War on Drugs 3 Abstract It was surprising to learn that, while the United States makes up just five percent of the world population, over twenty-five percent of the world’s detainees are from the United States. Yes, at a projected figure of more than 1.58 million inmates, the United States has the largest prison system in the world, (Glaze, 2014). These incarcerates are held in federal prisons, penitentiaries, and jails. They are also probates, as well as being held under house arrests.†¦show more content†¦(CASA, 2008). On June 19, 1986 Len Bias, a top-notch NBA draft pick was found dead of a crack cocaine overdose. His death prompted media turmoil and it was not long before the authorities came to realize that cocaine was accessible to black people in the form of â€Å"crack cocaine.† In a matter of weeks, Congress passed the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986. As a result of the Act, mandatory minimum sentencing for precise amounts of cocaine was enacted. Simultaneously, law-makers establ ished tougher sentences for crack cocaine but not for powder America’s War on Drugs 4 cocaine. For example, dispersal of a mere 5 grams of powder cocaine carried a minimum 5-year federal prison sentence, while the same amount of crack cocaine dispersal carried one- hundred times the penalty for possessing the same amount of crack, although the drugs are pharmacologically the same. The difference you ask? It was believed that powdered cocaine was more popular with wealthy white people and crack cocaine was associated with poor, uneducated black people. Quoting, Dr. Carl Hart, â€Å"The hype around cocaine, for example, has a lot more to do with political expedience—politicians cynically vilifying poor black people for electoral gain – than the drug’s potential for harm.† Further, Dr. Hart, the author of the book, High Price, â€Å"indicated that targeting crack cocaine in black communities was easier than addressing more grave concerns such as the â€Å"War on Poverty,† high

Saturday, December 28, 2019

Retailing Market Value in the UK Free Essay Example, 2250 words

According to Raphael Moreau, Retailing Analyst "Diversifying into convenience stores is on the agenda for the UK s top hypermarket chains because this retail format offers good growth prospects (Anonymous, 200). Convenience stores have increased their share of the UK food retailing market from 20% to 21.9% between 1999 and 2003. Clearly, these stores are appealing to UK consumers, thanks to their convenient locations and extended opening hours. Hypermarket retailers want to make sure they don t miss out on this growing area of the UK market. " High Street convenience stores are also particularly attractive to hypermarket retailers, due to strict planning rules restricting the opening of new out-of town hypermarkets. Euromonitor International believes that this trend is likely to intensify in the next five years. The Competition Commission, which considers convenience retailing to be a separate sector from supermarket retailing, has also encouraged this trend since supermarket chains can diversify into convenience retailing without facing inquiries from the Commission about the market s level of concentration (Raphael Moreau, 2004). Looking to the future, Euromonitor International s latest research forecasts that UK retail sales will increase by just over 11% in real terms between 2004 and 2008, a moderate increase resulting from strong downward pressure on prices, especially within food retailing, combined with rising interest rates leading to higher debt levels. We will write a custom essay sample on Retailing: Market Value in the UK or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now This would represent a slowdown compared to the strong performance recorded in 2003 and 2004, of 3.8% and 3% respectively, even though growth could be maintained by the dynamism of convenience stores/small grocers (Raphael Moreau, 2004). Gap (originally The Gap) is a San Fransisco-based apparel and accessories retailer founded in 1969 by Donald Fisher and Doris Fisher. The Fishers opened their first shop because they had been frustrated with the lack of decent customer service and fashionable styles at other retailers.

Friday, December 20, 2019

River Island in Kings Lynn UK Example

Essays on River Island in Kings Lynn UK Essay Financial Analysis of River Island in Kings Lynn UK Financial Analysis of River Island in Kings Lynn UK Part Calculating the Gross Profit Margins, Operating Profit Margins and Net Profit Margins 2006: Gross Profit Margin = Gross profit/Revenue = 180,362,050/670, 538, 155 = 0.27 Operating Profit Margin = Operating Profit/Revenue = 153,645,793/670,538,155 = 0.23 Net Profit Margin = Net Profit/Turnover = 156,539,550/670,538,155 = 0.23 Cash Conversion Circle = Average Inventory/Cost of goods sold per day = 178,814,944.5/(490,176,105/365) = 178,814,944.5/1,342,948.233 = 133.15 2007: Gross Profit Margin = 155,053,275/652,257,262 = 0.24 Operating Profit Margin = 131,765,867/652,257,262 = 0.20 Net Profit Margin = 137,863,013/652,275,262 = 0.21 Cash Conversion Circle = 239,664,760/(497,203,987/365) = 239,664,760/1,362,202.704 = 175.94 2008: Gross Profit Margin = 165,588,865/677,359,466 = 0.24 Operating Profit Margin = 132,012,406/677,359,466 = 0.19 Net Profit margin = 137,875,559/677,359,466 = 0.20 Cash Conversion Circle = 270,423,151.5/(511,770,601/365) = 270,423,151.5/1,402,111.236 = 192.87 2009: Gross Profit Margin = 168,785,159/735,570,248 = 0.23 Operating Profit Margin = 130,341,526/735,570,248 = 0.18 Net Profit Margin = 130,564,174/735,570,248 = 0.18 Cash Conversion Circle = 227,280,118/ (566,785,089/365) = 227,280,118/1,552,835.86 = 146.35 2010: Gross Profit Margin = 156,152,209/720,328,095 = 0.22 Operating Profit Margin = 113,885,312/720,328,095 = 0.16 Net Profit Margin = 110,793,773/720,328,095 = 0.15 Cash Conversion Circle = 148,097,542.5/(564,175,886/365) = 148,097,542.5/1,545,687.359 = 95.81 2011: Gross Profit Margin = 131.1/720.7 = 0.18 Operating Profit Margin = 84.7/720.7 = 0.12 Net Profit Margin = 81.6/720.7 = 0.11 Cash Conversion Circle = 152,650,000/ (589,600,000/365) = 152,650,000/1,615,342.466 = 94.5 2012: Gross Profit Margin = 139.3/739.7 = 0.19 Operating Profit Margin = 95.6/739.7 = 0.13 Net Profit Margin = 93.3/739.7 = 0.13 Cash Conversion Circle = 229,300,000/(600,400,000/365) =229,300,000/1,644,931.507 = 139.40 Part 2: Financial Performance River Island Clothing Company has recorded a steady rise in its annual turnover in the six-year period documented in this report. In 2006, the turnover was  £670, 538, 155, a figure that is above the turnover reports shown in 2012 ( £739.7). This reflected a 0.001% increase in turnover value. The gross profit margin in 2012 was 18%, a representation of a significant decrease by 9% compared to 2006 (the gross profit margin was 27%). However, the cash conversion circle in 2012 increased to 139.40 compared to 2006 (133.5). Comparing the performances between 2006 (turnover was  £670, 538, 155) and 2007 (turnover was  £652,257,262); the company realized a decrease in the annual turnover and a decrease in profit before tax. This was a negative growth considering the fact that the company refitted 15 shops, relocated 11 stores to larger outlets, and opened 12 new outlets. In 2006, only 2 shops were refitted, 12 were relocated to larger outlets, and 14 new ones were opened. This explains why there was a decrease in turnover and a decrease in net profit margin by 2.8% and 2% respectively in 2007. Turnover performance in 2008 was better than 2007 with an increase in the turnover by 3.7% ( £677,359,466 in 2008 and  £652,257,262 in 2007). Net profit margin decreased by 2% (19% in 2008 and 21% in 2007). The amounts spent on refitting, relocation and opening new stores in 2008 was less compared to 2007. Only 7 shops were refitted, 15 relocated to larger outlets, and 14 new stores opened. The marketing strategy of River Island Clothing Company contributed to the rise in turnover and, revenue, and profit before tax throughout the period. There is a constant increase in the annual sales revenue starting from 490,176,105 in 2006 to 600,400,000-a representation of 22.5% increase. The rise in stock value also indicates growth in the company’s operations for the six-year period. Stocks were valued at  £36.5 million in 2006 and  £63.8 million in 2012. From these figures, it is evident that the company has tripled its stock value. The rise in stock between this duration is 73.4%. Value of stock is attributed to refitting stores and opening new ones once the market has been established. In addition, closing several stores that are not performing as required by the board and other stakeholders also helped the company to record better performances. River Island Clothing Company’s decision to launch new products in the market has also enabled it to improve on its operations. The financial statements and opinions of the customers and the board indicate that the company is focused on improving its performance and profit acquisition in the competitive market of fashion merchandise. The decision to increase its production has resulted to an increase in consumables and raw materials over the years. Firstly,  £2,224,262 million of the consumables and raw materials were recorded in 2007 while  £484,575 of the same materials was available in 2006. To manage the competition in clothing industry in the UK, the manager of River Island Clothing Co. notes that the company has to offer exclusively designed products at fair prices, but of high quality and by ensuring that the customers are provided high level services. Another area of great significance in the company’s development lies in the debt amounts due in a single financial year. By December 2012, the company reported debt amounts of  £251.9 million. In 2011, the debt was valued at  £194.4 million. The company directors noted that credit risks are the primary contributors to trade defaulters, most of which are categorized under credit card costs used a few days before end of financial periods. The company’s performance focus based on factors such as trends in costs, margins and turnover indicates that there will be growth in future. The constant fall and rise in turnover also affected the profits. In addition to the ratios used in analyzing the performance of River Island Clothing Co., the ‘Cash Conversion Cycle’ also a better insight in the company’s ability to ensure that cash is available in its accounts. Cash conversion cycle determines the amount of time needed to sell inventories to get enough cash for other business processes. Looking at the three-year range-that is, 2006, 2009 and 2012-it is notable that the company’s cash conversion cycle is not steady. In 2006, the conversion was 133.5, 2009 and 2012 had 146.35 and 139.40 respectively. It means that the conversion rate in 2006 was better than the other years within the six-year period. The gross profit margin has also not been steady comparing the figures reported in all the six years. There is a significant drop, probably due to the increasing number of competitors and the introduction of cheaper merchandise. Gross Profit Margin in 2006 was 27%, in 2009, it was 23%, and 19% in 2012. Despite the constant rise and fall in turnover, the company’s performance in terms of gross profits and sales revenue needs revision. Part 3 a) The business rate = multiplier Ãâ€" ratable value = 122000 Ãâ€" 870 = 106,140,000 b) Source: VALUATION OFFICE AGENCY (2013, p1) c) It is located near the ferry crossing and train station References RIVER ISLAND. Store Locater. Retrieved April 17, 2014, from http://www.riverisland.com/how-can-we-help/store-locator VALUATION OFFICE AGENCY. My valuation. Retrieved April 17, 2014, from http://www.2010.voa.gov.uk/rli/en/basic/find/valuation/2010/14805140000/14896765000 RIVER ISLAND. Annual Reports. Retrieved April 17, 2014, from http://www.riverisland.com/